The power supply of the electrostatic precipitator consists of a control box, a step-up transformer and a rectifier. The output voltage of the power supply also has a great influence on the dust removal efficiency. Therefore, the operating voltage of the electrostatic precipitator must be maintained at 40-75kV or even above 100kV.
The electrostatic dust precipitators are composed of two parts: one part is the main system of the electrostatic precipitator; the other part is the power supply device that provides high-voltage direct current and the low-voltage automatic control system. The high-voltage power supply system supplies power to the step-up transformer, and the dust collector of the dust collector is grounded. The low voltage electric control system is used to control the temperature of the electromagnetic vibrating hammer, the ash discharging electrode, the ash conveying electrode and several components.
The basic principle of the electrostatic dust precipitator is to use electricity to capture dust in the flue gas, which mainly includes the following four interrelated physical processes:
(1) Gas ionization
(2) The charging of dust
(3) The charged dust moves to the electrode
(4) Collection of charged dust
The capture process of charged dust: On two metal anodes and cathodes with a large difference in radius of curvature, an electric field sufficient to ionize the gas is maintained through high-voltage direct current. The electrons generated after gas ionization: anions and cations are adsorbed on the dust passing through the electric field, the dust is charged. Under the action of electric field force, the dust with different charge polarity moves to the electrodes of different polarities and deposits on the electrodes to achieve the purpose of separating dust and gas.